Dyadic Adjustment in Couples: How Partners' Social Value Within Couple and Emotional Competences Predict It

Gérald Delelis, Mathilde Heuschen

Abstract


Knowing the determinants of couple adjustment is a challenge, both for predicting this adjustment and for helping couples in therapy in the best possible way. We based this study on the Person’s Social Value Theory (Beauvois, J.-L. [1976]. The topic of social conduct evaluation. Connexions, 19, 7-30) which postulates that two dimensions – social utility and social desirability – support self- and other- descriptions. This study aimed to evaluate the way the evaluation of own social value within couple and the evaluation of social value within couple of the partner influence the dyadic adjustment of the spouses. In addition, we took into account the duration of the couples and the emotional competences of the spouses (using the PEC). Participants were the spouses of 152 voluntary heterosexual couples who completed a booklet of questionnaires. The results showed that the two dimensions of person’s social value within couple influence partners' dyadic adjustment but in a different way for men and women and according to the duration of the couples’ relationship. Furthermore, the effect of social value within couple seems to cover partially the classic effect of emotional competences on couple experience and satisfaction. The discussion underlines the relevance and interest of using the social value within the couple in the study of conjugal relationships as well as in counselling couples.

Keywords


dyadic adjustment; couples; person’s social value; emotional competences

Full Text:

PDF HTML

References


Abele, A. E. & Wojciszke, B. (2007). Agency and communion from the perspective of self versus others. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93, 751-763. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.93.5.751

Abele, A. E. & Wojciszke, B. (2013).The Big Two in social judgment and behavior. Social Psychology, 44, 61-62. doi: 10.1027/1864-9335/a000137

Antoine, P., Christophe, V., & Nandrino, J.-L. (2008). Échelle d'ajustement dyadique : intérêts cliniques d'une révision et validation d'une version abrégée [Dyadic Adjustment Scale: Clinical interest of a revision and validation of an abbreviated form]. L'Encéphale, 34, 38-46. doi: 10.1016/j.encep.2006.12.005

Bar-On, R. (2006). The Bar-On model of Emotional-Social Intelligence (ESI). Psicotherma, 18, 13-25.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/6509274_The_Bar-On_Model_of_Emotional-Social_Intelligence

Beauvois, J.-L. (1976). Problématique des conduites sociales d’évaluation [The topic of social conduct evaluation]. Connexions, 19, 7-30.

Beauvois, J.-L. (1995). La connaissance des utilités sociales [Knowledge of social utilities]. Psychologie Française, 40, 375-388.

Beauvois, J.-L. & Dubois, N. (2008). Deux dimensions du jugement personnologique : Approche évaluative vs approche psychologique [Two dimensions of personal judgment: Evaluative approach vs. psychological approach]. Psychologia Sociala, 21, 105-119.

Beauvois, J.-L., Dubois, N., & Peeters, G. (1999). L’évaluation personnologique [Personal evaluation]. In J.-L. Beauvois, N. Dubois, & W. Doise. (Eds.), La construction sociale de la personne. Grenoble : PUG.

Brackett, M. A., Warner, R. M., & Bosco, J. S. (2005). Emotional intelligence and relationship quality among couples. Personal Relationships, 12, 197-212. doi: 10.1111/j.1350-4126.2005.00111.x

Bradbury, T. N., Cohan, C. L., & Karney, B. R. (1998). Optimizing longitudinal research for understanding and preventing marital dysfunction. In T. N. Bradbury. (Ed.), The developmental course of marital dysfunction (pp. 279-311). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Brasseur, S., Grégoire, J., Bourdu, R., & Mikolajczak, M. (2013). The Profile of Emotional Competence (PEC): Development and validation of a self-reported measure that fits dimensions of emotional competence theory. PLoS ONE, 8(5).

Buehler, C., Helms, H. M., & Proulx, C. M. (2007). Marital quality and personal wellbeing: A meta-analysis. Journal of Marriage and Family, 69, 576-593. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2007.00393.x

Cambon, L. (2006). Désirabilité sociale et utilité sociale, deux dimensions de la valeur communiquée par les adjectifs de personnalité [Social desirability and social utility, two dimensions of the value communicated by personality adjectives]. International Review of Social Psychology, 19, 125-151. https://www.cairn.info/revue-internationale-de-psychologie-sociale-2006-3-page-125.htm

Cambon, L., Lavigne, F., & Le Barbenchon, E. (2005). Désirabilité et utilité sociale de 308 adjectifs de personnalité et 297 professions [Desirability and social utility of 308 personality adjectives and 297 professions]. L'Année Psychologique, 105, 307-322. http://www.persee.fr/doc/psy_0003-5033_2005_num_105_2_29697

Caruso, D. R., Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (2000). Competing models of emotional intelligence. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of human intelligence (2nd ed., pp. 396-422). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Clarke, S. C. (1995) Advance report of final divorce statistics 1989 and 1990. Monthly Vital Statistics Report, 43(9-Supplement). Hyattsville, MD: National Centre for Health Statistics.

Cordova, J. V., Gee, C. B., & Warren, Z. (2005). Emotional skillfulness in marriage: Intimacy as a mediator of the relationship between emotional skillfulness and satisfaction. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 24, 218-235. doi: 10.1521/jscp.24.2.218.62270

Delelis, G. & Mignon, A. (in preparation). Does self-reported social value influence the adjustment of partners from non-distressed heterosexual couples?

Dubois, N. (2005). Normes sociales de jugement et valeur : ancrage sur l’utilité et ancrage sur la désirabilité [Social norms of judgment and value: anchoring on utility and anchoring on desirability]. International Review of Social Psychology, 18, 43-79.

Dubois, N. & Aubert, E. (2010). Valeur sociale des personnes : deux informations valent-elles mieux qu'une ? [Social value of people: is two pieces of information better than one?] Revue Internationale de Psychologie Sociale, 23, 57-92.

Eagly, A. H. & Mladinic, A. (1989). Gender stereotypes and attitudes toward women and men. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 15, 543-558. doi: 10.1177/0146167289154008

Eagly, A. H. & Steffen, V. J. (1984). Gender stereotypes stem from the distribution of women and men into social roles. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 735-754. doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.46.4.735

Fincham, F. D., & Bradbury, T. N. (1987). The assessment of marital quality: A reevaluation. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 49, 797-809. doi: 10.2307/351973

Fiske, S.T., Cuddy, A.J.C, Glick, P., & Xu, J. (2002). A model of (often mixed) stereotype content: Competence and warmth respectively follow from perceived status and competition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 878-902. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.82.6.878

Gallagher, E. N. & Vella-Brodrick, D. A. (2008). Social support and emotional intelligence as predictors of subjective well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 44, 1551-1561. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2008.01.011

Gibson, J. J. (1979). The ecological approach to visual perception. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Glenn, N. D. (1998). The course of marital success and failure in five American 10-year marriage cohorts. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 60, 569-576. doi: 10.2307/353529

Halford, W. K., Hahlweg, K., & Dunne, M. (1990). The cross-cultural consistency of marital communication associated with marital distress. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 52, 487-500. doi: 10.2307/353042

Heilman, M. E. & Eagly, A. H. (2008). Gender stereotypes are alive, well, and busy producing workplace discrimination. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 1, 393-398. doi.org/10.1111/j.1754-9434.2008.00072.x

Henry, N. J. M., Berg, C. A., Smith, T. W., & Florsheim, P. (2007). Positive and negative characteristics of marital interaction and their association with marital satisfaction middle-aged and older couples. Psychology and Aging, 22, 428-441. doi: 10.1037/0882-7974.22.3.428

Horwitz, A. V., McLaughlin, J., & White, H. R. (1998). How the negative and positive aspects of partner relationships affect the mental health of young married people. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 39, 124-136. doi: 10.2307/2676395

INSEE (2006). www.insee.fr/fr/themes/detail.asp?ref_id=ir-sd2005&page=irweb/sd2005/dd/sd2005_div.htm

Johnson, D. R., Amoloza, T. O., & Booth, A. (1992). Stability and developmental change in marital quality: A three-wave panel analysis. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 54, 582-594. doi: 10.2307/353244

Kellerhals, J., Widmer, E., & Lévy, R. (2004). Mesure et démesure du couple [Couples: Measure and excess]. Lausanne: Payot.

Kotsou, I., Nelis, D., Grégoire, J., & Mikolajczak, M. (2011). Emotional plasticity: Conditions of improving emotional competence in adulthood. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96, 827-839. doi: 10.1037/a0023047

Kreider, R. M. & Renee, E. (2011). Number, timing, and duration of marriages and divorces: 2009. Current Population Reports (pp. 70-125). U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC. https://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/p70-125.pdf

Lewis, R. A. & Spanier, G. B. (1980). Marital quality: A review of the seventies. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 42, 825-839. doi: 10.2307/351827

Maalouff, J. M., Schutte, N. S., & Thorsteinsson, E. B. (2014). Trait emotional intelligence and romantic relationship satisfaction: A meta-analysis. American Journal of Family Therapy, 42, 53-66. https://doi.org/10.1080/01926187.2012.748549

Margolin, G. (1980). Behavior exchange in happy and unhappy marriages: A family life cycle perspective. Behavior Therapy, 12, 329-343. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7894(81)80122-0

Martins, A., Ramalho, N., & Morin, E. (2010) A comprehensive meta-analysis of the relationship between Emotional Intelligence and health. Personality and Individual Differences, 49, 554-564. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2010.05.029

Mayer, J. D. & Salovey, P. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personnality, 9, 185-211. doi: 0.2190/DUGG-P24E-52WK-6CDG

Mayer, J. D. & Salovey, P. (1997). What is Emotional Intelligence? In P. Salovey & D. J. Sluyter (Eds.), Emotional development and emotional intelligence (pp. 3-34). New York: Basic Books.

Mikolajczak, M., Roy, E., Luminet, O., Fillée, C., & de Timary, P. (2007). The moderating impact of emotional intelligence on the free cortisol responses to stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 32, 1000-1012. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2007.07.009

Nelis, D., Kotsou, I., Quoidbach., J., Hansenne, M., Weytens, F., Dupuis, P., & Mikolajczak, M. (2011). Increasing emotional competence improves psychological and physical well-being, social relationships, and employability. Emotion, 11, 354-366. doi: 10.1037/a0021554

Parsons, T. & Bales, R. F. (1955). Family socialization and interaction processes. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.

Petrides, K. V., Frederickson, N., & Furnham, A. (2004). The role of trait emotional intelligence in academic performance and deviant behavior at school. Personality and Individual Differences, 36, 277-293. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(03)00084-9

Prigerson, H. G., Maciejewski, P. K., & Rosenheck, R. A. (1999). The effects of marital dissolution and marital quality on health and health service use among women. Medical Care, 37, 858-873. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3767417

Proulx, C., Helms, H., & Buehler, C. (2007). Marital quality and personal well-being: A meta-analysis. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 69, 576–593. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2007.00393.x

Schutte, N. S., Malouff, N. S., Bobik, C., Coston, T. D., Greeson, C., Jedlicka, C., Rhodes, E., & Wendorf, G. (2001). Emotional intelligence and interpersonal relations. Journal of Social Psychology, 141, 523-536. doi: 10.1080/00224540109600569

Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J. M., Simunek, M., McKenley, J., & Hollander, S. (2002). Characteristic emotional intelligence and emotional well-being. Cognition and Emotion, 16, 769-785. doi: 10.1080/02699930143000482

Singly (de), F. (2002). Sociologie de la famille contemporaine [Sociology of the contemporary family]. Paris: Nathan.

Smith, L., Ciarrochi, J., & Heaven, P. C. L. (2008). The stability and change of trait emotional intelligence, conflict communication patterns, and relationship satisfaction: A one-year longitudinal study. Personality and Individual Differences, 45, 738-743. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2008.07.023

Spanier, G. B. (1976). Measuring dyadic adjustment: New scales for assessing the quality of marriage and similar dyads. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 38, 15-28. doi: 10.2307/350547

Sprecher, S. (1987). The effects of self-disclosure given and received on affection for an intimate partner and stability of the relationship. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 4, 115-127. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265407587042001

Testé, B. & Simon, K. (2005). Valeur affective et utilité sociale des traits dans les stéréotypes de genre, le soi féminin et le soi masculin [Emotional value and social utility of traits in gender stereotypes, the female Self and the male Self]. Revue Internationale de Psychologie Sociale, 18, 81-94. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/288006533_Valeur_affective_et_utilite_sociale_des_traits_dans_les_stereotypes_de_genre_le_soi_feminin_et_le_soi_masculin

Uebelacker, L. A., Courtnage, E. S., & Whisman, M. A. (2003). Correlates of depression and marital dissatisfaction: Perceptions of marital communication style. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 20, 757-769. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265407503206003

Vaillant, C. & Vaillant, G. (1993). Is the U-Curve of marital satisfaction an illusion? A 40-year study of marriage. Journal of Marriage and Family, 55, 230-239. doi: 10.2307/352971

VanLaningham, J., Johnson, D.R., & Amato, P. (2001). Marital happiness, marital duration, and the U-shaped curve: Evidence from a five-wave panel study. Social Forces, 79, 1313-1341. https://doi.org/10.1353/sof.2001.0055

Weiss, R. L., Hops, H., & Patterson, G. R. (1973). A framework for conceptualizing marital conflict: A technology for altering it, some data for evaluating it. In L. D. Handy & E. L. Mash (Eds.), Behavior change: Methodology concepts and practice (pp. 309-342). Champaign, IL: Research Press.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5964/ijpr.v13i1.340