Measuring Romantic Competence in Young Adults: The Inventory of Romantic Relationship Competence

Anthony J. Faber, Eu Gene Chin, Victor R. Wilburn, Shahrokh M. Shafaie

Abstract


This article presents psychometric data for a 35-item self-report instrument measuring romantic relationship competence in two separate samples of young adult college students. In study 1 (N = 219), results from Parallel Analysis and Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) suggested the extraction of seven domains of romantic relationship competence: relationship locus of control, perspective taking, intimacy avoidance, emotion regulation, romantic appeal, conflict resolution skills, and temperament. In study 2 (N = 907), a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) provided support for the aforementioned factor structure albeit with minor revisions (i.e., correlated errors between three pairs of items). MIMIC modeling results provided support for partial measurement invariance across gender. A CFA-based method of estimating scale reliability demonstrated acceptable to good reliability indices. Bivariate correlations with other social competence and self-esteem measures provided support for convergent and divergent validity. An excel-based applet is available to readers who are interested in using the 35-item IRRC with individual respondents (e.g., practitioners). Researchers interested in using the measure within the context of structural equation modeling should model relevant non-invariant parameters before proceeding with the evaluation of structural parameters. This instrument demonstrates promise as an instrument for measuring domains of romantic relationship competence within the emerging adult population.

Keywords


relationship competence; young adults; romantic relationships; self-report assessment

Full Text:

PDF HTML

References


Aalgaard, R. A., Bolen, R. & Nugent, W. R. (2016). A literature review of forgiveness as a beneficial intervention to increase relationship satisfaction in couples therapy. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 26, 46-55.

Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191-215.

Barber, B. K., & Erickson, L. D. (2001). Adolescent social initiative: Antecedents in the ecology of social connections. Journal of Adolescent Research, 16, 326-354.

Bentler, P. M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107(2), 238-246. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.107.2.238

Blair, B., Perry, N. O’Brien, M., Calkins, S., Keane, S., & Shanahan, L. (2015). Identifying developmental cascades among differentiated dimensions of social competence and emotion regulation. Developmental Psychology, 51, 1062-1073.

Bouchey, H. (2007). Perceived romantic competence, importance of romantic domains, and psychosocial adjustment. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 36, 503-514.

Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss: Vol. 1. Attachment. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Brown, T. A. (2015). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research (2nd ed.). New York, NY: The Guildford Press.

Calkins, S. D., & Mackler, J. S. (2011). Temperament, emotion regulation, and social development. In M. K. Underwood, & L. H. Rosen (Eds.), Social development: Relationships in infancy, childhood, and adolescence. (pp. 44-70). Guildford Press.

Chen, F. F. (2007). Sensitivity of goodness of fit indexes to lack of measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 14(3), 464-504. doi:10.1080/10705510701301834

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.

Creswell, J. (2015). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and

evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. (5th ed.). Boston: Pearson.

Davila, J., Mattanah, J., Bhatia, V., Latack, J. Feinstein, B., Eaton, N., . . . Zhou, J. (2017). Romantic competence, health relationship functioning, and well-being in emerging adults. Personal Relationships, 24, 162-184.

Davila, J., Steinberg, S., Miller, M., Stroud, C., Starr, L., Yoneda, A. (2009). Assessing romantic competence in adolescence: The Romantic Competence Interview. Journal of Adolescence, 32, 55-75.

Davila, J., Stroud, C., Miller, M., & Steinberg, S. (2007). Commentary: Defining and understanding adolescent romantic competence: Progress, challenges, and implications. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 36, 534-540.

DeVellis, R. F. (2003). Scale Development: Theory and Applications (2nd ed). Thousand oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Erichsen, K. & Dignam, P. (2016, April). From hookup to husband: Transitioning a casual to a committed relationship. Paper presented at Southern Sociological Society Annual Meeting, Atlanta, GA.

Erikson, E. H. (1982). The life cycle completed: Review. New York: Norton.

Fincham, F. D., Hall, J., & Beach, S. R. (2006). Forgiveness in marriage: Current status and future directions. Family Relations, 55, 415-427.

Gross, J. J. (1998). The emerging field of emotion regulation: An Integrative review. Review of General Psychology, 2, 271-299.

Jaccard, J., & Wan, C. K. (1996). LISREL approaches to interaction effects in multiple regression. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Jöreskog, K. G., & Goldberger, A. S. (1975). Estimation of a model with multiple indicators and multiple causes of a single latent variable. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 70, 631–639.

Kilmann, P. R., Finch, H, Parness, M., & Downer, J. T. (2013). Partner attachment and interpersonal characteristics. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 39, 144-159.

La Greca, A. M. & Mackey, E. R. (2007). Adolescents’ anxiety in dating situations: The potential role of friends and romantic partners. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 36, 520-531.

Levenson, R. W., Hasse, C. M., Bloch, L., Holley, S. R., & Seider, B. J. (2013). Emotion regulation in couples. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (2nd ed., pp. 267-283. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

MacCallum, R. C., Browne, M. W., & Sugawara, H. M. (1996). Power analysis and determination of sample size for covariance structure modeling. Psychological Methods, 1, 130–149.

Marano, H. E. (2015, October). Crisis U. Psychology Today, 48, 62-71.

McFarlane, A. H., Bellissimo, A., & Norman, G. R. (1995). The role of family and peers in social self-efficacy: Links to depression in adolescence. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 65, 402-410.

Montgomery, M. (2005). Psychosocial intimacy and identity: From early adolescence to emerging adulthood. Journal of Adolescent Research, 20, 346-374.

Muthén, B. (1989). Latent variable modeling in heterogeneous populations. Psychometrika, 54, 557–585.

Newcomb, A. F., & Bagwell, C. L. (1995). Children’s friendship relations: a meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 306-347.

Olson, D. H., Olson-Sigg, A., & Larson, P. J. (2008). The couple checkup: Finding your relationship strengths. Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

Pew Research Center (2015). The American family today. Retrieved from

http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2015/12/17/1-the-american-family-today/

Pearlin, L., & Schooler, C. (1978). The structure of coping. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 19, 2-21.

Raykov, T. (2001). Bias of Cronbach’s Alpha for fixed congeneric measures with correlated errors. Applied Psychological Measurement, 25, 69-76.

Raykov, T. (2004). Behavioral scale reliability and measurement invariance evaluation using latent variable modeling. Behavior Therapy, 35, 299-331.

Rose-Krasnor, L. (1997). The nature of social competence: A theoretical review. Social Development, 6, 111-135.

Rosenberg, M. (1979). Conceiving the self. New York: Basic Books.

Rothbart, M. K., & Bates, J. E. (2006). Temperament in children’s development. In W. Damon, R. Lerner, & N. Eisenberg (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol 3. Social, emotional, and personality development (6th ed., pp. 99-166). New York: Wiley.

Schroder-Abe, M., & Schutz, A. (2011). Walking in each other’s shoes: Perspective taking medicates effects of emotional intelligence on relationship quality. European Journal of Personality, 25, 155-169.

Seal, C., Miguel, K., Alzamil, A., Naumann, S., Royce-Davis, J., Drost, D. (2015). Personal-interpersonal competence assessment: A self-report instrument for student development. Research in Higher Education Journal, 27.

Sherer, M., Maddux, J. E., Mercandante, B., Prentice-Dunn, s., Jacobs, B., & Rogers, R. W. (1982). The Self-Efficacy Scale: Construction and validation. Psychological Reports, 51,

-671.

Shulman, S., Davila, J., Shachar-Shapira, L. (2011). Assessing romantic competence among older adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 34, 397-406.

Steiger, J. H. (1990). Structural model evaluation and modification: An interval estimation approach. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 25(2), 173–180. doi: 10.1207/s15327906mbr2502_4

Tucker, L. R., & Lewis, C. (1973). A reliability coefficient for maximum likelihood factor analysis. Psychometrika, 38(1), 1-10. 10.1007/BF02291170

Turner, A. (2015). Generation Z: Technology and social interest. The Journal of Individual Psychology, 71, 103-113.

Wentzel, K. R., & Caldwell, K. (1997). Friendships, peer acceptance, and group membership: Relations to academic achievement in middle school. Child Development, 68(6), 1198-1209.

Young, M. R. & Bradley, M. (1998). Social withdrawal: Self-efficacy, happiness, and popularity in introverted and extroverted adolescents. Canadian Journal of School of Psychology, 14, 21-35.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5964/ijpr.v13i1.341